Size Eleventh largest city
Altitude Sea level
Industry Ferrochrome, textile, food processing, fertilizer
Agriculture Wheat, barley, rice, cotton, sugar beets, oranges, bananas, loquats
Animal husbandry Goats, beekeeping, sericulture
History Pergamum, Roman, Byzantine, Seljuk, Ottoman, Turkish Republic

Antalya, located in an area called Pamphylia, was founded by Attalus II, King of Pergamum, as a port city in the 2C BC. The name of the city, Antalya is derived from its founder’s name.

Antalya had been a small city until very recently. Tourism has made Antalya one of the largest beautiful spots. Parallel to increasing tourism in the city, the population grows very fast these days.

Kaleici, which means “inner castle” in Turkish, has tourism to thank for its survival. Careful conversion of old houses into dwellings or pensions has subsequently maintained the original appearance of these fine buildings. Modern houses are not permitted. The walls of Antalya were built in the Hellenistic period but later restored and enlarged in the Roman and Byzantine periods. The impressive Roman structure of Hadrian’s Gate was built by citizens of Antalya to commemorate the visit of the Emperor Hadrian in 130 AD. Located in Ataturk Street, it was made of marble and originally had two stories. It has three arched entranceways separated by piers with Corinthian columns in front of each. The gate is flanked by two 2C BC towers. After entering through Hadrian’s Gate, a little further away in the old town center is the ruin of a mosque, Kesik Minare (Truncated Minaret). This building was originally a Roman temple which in the 5C AD was converted into a Byzantine church and finally in the 13C made into a mosque. The Hidirlik Kulesi, a 2C AD round tower, is thought to have been the burial place of a local dignitary. The Yivli Minare (The Fluted Minaret) which became the symbol of Antalya, is part of a 13C Seljuk period medrese and mosque complex.

Except for these few places in the center of the city and the Archeological Museum on the western edge of town, there is not much to see in the city. It must be noted that the Archeological Museum is one of the top five in the country, and not to be missed.


Although it is one of the major rivers of the southern Anatolia region, its length is not very long; 15 km / 9 miles. The water which forms the river travels underground from sources 40 km / 25 miles far away. In Duden park the water surfaces and continues till it reaches the sea. The water is used for irrigation of most of the parks in Antalya.


Pamphylia which in ancient Gr. means “land of all tribes” is located on the Mediterranean coast of the Gulf of Antalya. By looking at the meaning of the word, it is understood that several tribes had been here at different times.

The northern and southern borders of Pamphylia were the Taurus mountains and the Mediterranean Sea. The western border with Lycia and the eastern border with Cilicia never stayed stable. Four major rivers traverse the Pamphylian plain, each associated with a city in ancient times. The Duden river was associated with Attaleia, The Aksu river with Perge, the Koprucay river with Aspendus and finally the Manavgat river with Side.

The histories of the cities of Pamphylia are similar with the exception of Antalya, a later Hellenistic settlement.