Founded possibly in the 11C BC, Halicarnassus came under Persian domination c.540 BC. The Persians ruled through native tyrants, one of whom, Artemisia, shared in the Persian defeat at Salamis (480). Later in the Persian Wars Halicarnassus joined the Delian League. The city enjoyed its greatest prosperity under Mausolus, a Persian satrap who achieved virtual independence in the 4C BC. The temple erected in his honor, the Mausoleum, became one of the Seven Wonders of the World. Captured by Alexander the Great in 334 BC, Halicarnassus soon declined. Early in the 15C AD the Knights of Rhodes built a picturesque castle dedicated to St. Peter. Its walls were built largely of material derived from the ruins of the classical city. Remains of the Mausoleum, excavated in the 1850s, are in the British Museum in London.Halicarnassus was also the hometown of the famous ancient historian Herodotus.
Herodotus (c. 5C BC)
Little is known with certainty about Herodotus’s life. He was born in Halicarnassus in 484 BC. His work proves that he traveled widely throughout the Mediterranean.
Herodotus was a writer who wrote the first historical work in the conventional sense of the term history. He is therefore known as the father of history. Writers before him, such as Hecataeus (c.500 BC), wrote purely geographical treatises.
Herodotus tended to ignore the uncertain past. His theme, instead, was the enmity that developed between East and West from the time of Croesus of Lydia (c.550) to the Persian War of 480-79 BC.
Herodotus’s History contains valuable and lively discussions of the customs, geography and history of Mediterranean peoples, particularly the Egyptians. In this respect he shows the influence of his great predecessor Hecataeus, but his work was written with wit and dramatic flair. Herodotus possessed a philosophical mind. Convinced that pride preceded a fall, he wrote history in part to show that evil deeds would be punished. He was also persuaded of the general instability of fortune for innocent and guilty alike: unchecked prosperity could not endure even for such well-meaning men as Croesus of Lydia.
In winter it is a small fishing town. But in summer Marmaris is an attractively organized tourist resort. It is situated on the Aegean coast at the center of a scenically beautiful area of southern Turkey. The town lying at the head of a sparkling fjord is surrounded by pine covered hills with a backdrop of mountains.Old Marmaris is clustered around an 11C AD Ottoman castle and many houses which have been restored to their original appearances.
The appeal of Marmaris is not the works of man but those of nature. Nature has endowed Marmaris with a wonderful harbor. There are regular ferry boat services to Rhodes from Marmaris. Marmaris is the best place to charter a Blue Cruise heading east along the Lycian coast.
DALYAN (FISH WEIR) AND CAUNUS
The modern town Dalyan is located on the east bank of the Dalyan Cayi (River) and the ancient Carian city of Caunus lies on the western bank. The Dalyan Cayi is the stream that meanders down to the sea from Koycegiz Lake a short distance inland. The beach has been made a protected area as the breeding-ground of Caretta Caretta, the loggerhead turtle.
History of Caunus
The references about the past of Caunus has always been negative. According to Herodotus, people of Caunus were the natives of Caria and resisted to the Persians during their conquest of Caria in the 6C BC. Later it was sold to Rhodes by Egyptian generals in the 2C BC. In the 1C BC, they allied with Mithridates VI in Pontic king’s wars and eventually lost. Malaria was endemic and many people contracted it. Silting of the harbor was another major problem in the history of the city. As a result, Caunus had a bad reputation.
Hellenistic fortification remains with a tower and a gateway on the acropolis hill, rock-cut Lycian tombs, a Hellenistic stoa, a fountain house, a palaestra, a theater, a Byzantine church and the terrace temple are among the ruins of the ancient city of Caunus.
Fethiye has become popular for beach holidays and yacht cruises. The modern town of Fethiye covers the site of ancient Telmessus.
History of Telmessus
Although it was not then a Lycian city, Telmessus was first mentioned in the tribute lists of the Delian League in the 5C BC. It became Lycian in the 4C BC only after the siege of the city by Pericles, King of Limyra. Later, it was taken by one of the governors of Alexander the Great with a trick similar to the Trojan Horse. An orchestra consisting of women passed the guards and occupied the acropolis.
Telmessus became part of the Roman province of Asia in 133 BC. During the Byzantine period Telmessus was known as Anastasiopolis. Rum population lived in the area until 1922.
The hill behind Fethiye is encircled by a strong wall which is the only remain of a medieval castle.
More than 20 Lycian rock tombs in the steep rock wall above the town are the rare surviving remains of the ancient times. Among these tombs the most prominent is the one which belongs to Amyntas. It dates from the 4C BC and is in the form of an Ionic temple with two Ionic columns. Most of the tombs are of the house-types imitating the Lycian wooden houses in their plans.
Olu Deniz (Dead Sea)
Dead is in the sense of calm. It is a sheltered lagoon of great beauty, almost totally cut off from the sea, at the northern end of a long cove. Stretching from the lagoon to the southern end of the cove is a long, sandy public beach.